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Concrete technology

The field of Concrete technology deals with the study of concrete properties and their practical usages and practices.In building construction, concrete is the core material, it is utilized for the foundation construction, beams, columns, slabs, and other weight-bearing components. There are variouskinds of the binding material is utilized other than cement for example lime for lime concrete and bitumen for asphalt concrete that is used for road construction.

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concrete technology

Components of concrete:

Here, we have given some of the components of concrete. They are sand, cement, aggregates, and water. The paste is actually a mixture of Portland cement and water. Thus, concrete will be known as a mixture of paste, sand, and aggregates. Sometimes rocks are utilized instead of aggregates.

The surface will be coated with cement paste and coarse aggregates will bind them when mixed thoroughly. Soon after mixing the components, hydration reaction will beginand offers strength and rock-solid concrete is attained.

how to make concrete
How to make concrete?

Concrete is prepared and mixed in quantities w.r.t. cement quantity. There are ‘2’ types of concrete mixes are available, i.e. nominal mix and design mix. The nominal mix is utilized for common construction methodslike small residential buildings. Highly popular nominal mixes are in the quantity of 1:2:4.

Design mixed concrete is for mixing proportions that are finalized on the basis ofnumerous lab tests on cylinder or cube for its compressive strength. This methodology is otherwise known as a mix strategy. These tests are practiced to find out the appropriate mix on the basis of locally available material to get strength essential as per structural strategy.

Once suitable mix proportions are recognized, then its ingredients are mixed in the ratio as chosen. ‘2’ methodologies are utilized for mixing;they are:

  • 1) Machine Mixing
  • 2) Hand Mixing

Based on the need for quantity and quality, the appropriate methodology of mixing is chosen. In the hand mixing, each ingredient is kept on a flat surface, and water is added and mixed with hand tools. In machine mixing, different types of machines are utilized. In this case, the ingredients are added in essential quantity to mix and offer fresh concrete.

When it is mixed efficiently, then it is carried to form location and dispensed in formworks. Numerous kinds of formworks are available that as selected on the basis of usage. Discharged concrete is allowed to be fixed in formworks for some time on the basis of the structural member types to getadequate strength.

When the formwork is removed, then curing is carried out by various methodologies to form up de-moisture because ofvaporization. Moisture is requiringa hydration reaction that is responsible for gaining strength. Thus, curing is commonlysustained for at least 7 days after the elimination of formwork.

types of concrete technology
Steps of concrete construction:
  • 1) Selecting quantities of material with selected proportion
  • 2) Mixing
  • 3) Checking for workability
  • 4) Transportation
  • 5) Pouring in farm work for casting
  • 6) Vibrating for appropriate compaction
  • 7) Removal of the framework after an appropriate time
  • 8) Curing with appropriateapproaches in the required time
steps of concrete construction
benefits of concrete technology
The benefits of concrete:
  • 1) Supremestrength, sturdiness, durability, and flexibility
  • 2) Maximizedenergy efficacythrough thermal mass
  • 3) Durability in any environment
  • 4) No off-gas
  • 5) Low maintenance cost
  • 6) 100% recyclability
Disadvantages of concrete:
  • 1) It possesses a low tensile strength
  • 2) Soluble salts in concrete causes efflorescence if moistness reacts with them
  • 3) Continued loads will develop creep in structures
  • 4) Concrete has low toughness
  • 5) Concrete has a low specific strength
  • 6) For Concrete formwork is required
  • 7) Long curing time is required
  • 8) It demands strict quality control
  • 9) Concrete is a Quasi-brittle material
disadvantages of concrete technology