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ACCOUNTING

What is accounting?

Accounting is defined as, in what way your business records, organizes, and understands its financial information. And also, accounting is defined as a measurement and communication progression utilized for reporting the activities of profit-seeking business administrations. Accounting is more than just reporting revenue to taxing authorities or offering income and expenditure to potential investors.Accounting principles must be formed on the basis of realistic assumptions. It should be simple, understandable, and explanatory. And the principles of accounting must act as a key for future predictions.

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what is accounting
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The Accounting Cycle

Here, Accounting starts with recording transactions. The transactions may be of any activity or event that includes your business.Here we have given some of the concepts of accounting. They are as follows: To form up a firm foundation of how accounting works, then an individual must understand several conceptual issues. These basic accounting conceptions are as follows:



  • Accruals concept
  • Conservatism concept
  • Consistency concept
accounting-style


  • Economic entity concept
  • Matching concept
  • Materiality concept

Accruals concept

Income will be recognized when procured, and expenses are recognized when resources are spent. This idea implies that a business might recognize income, benefits, and losses in amounts that fluctuate from what might be received depending on the money got from clients or when money is paid to providers and representatives. Reviewers will just affirm the budget reports of a business that have been arranged under the idea of the accumulation.

Conservatism concept

Income is known when there is a reasonable certainty that it will be acknowledged, though expenses are known faster when there is a reasonable chance that they will be brought about.

Consistency concept

When a business decides to utilize a particular accounting strategy, it should keep utilizing it on a go-forward basis. Thusly, fiscal reports ready in different periods can be dependably thought about.

Economic entity concept

The transactions of a business are to be kept separate from those of its proprietors. So, there is no mixing of individual and deals in an organization's budget statement.

Matching concept

The costs related to income ought to be recognized in a similar period wherein the income was identified. By doing this, there is no rearrangement of cost recognition into later detailing periods, so somebody seeing an organization's budget statement can be guaranteed that all features of a transaction have been recorded simultaneously.

Materiality concept

Transactions ought to be recorded when not doing. So it might change the choices made by a reader of an organization's budget report. This will come as a result of comparatively smaller-size transactions being recorded so that the financial statements widely signify the financial outcomes, financial position, and business’s cash flows.

Merits and Demerits of Accounting

Merits

  • Maintenance of business records
  • Memory replacements
  • Evidence in legal matters
  • Business evaluation
  • Decision making
types-of-accounting

Demerits

demerits-of-accounting
  • Management of accounts
  • Express accounting information in terms of money
  • Accounting information may be unfair
  • Accounting information is based on estimates
  • Manipulation of Accounts


Functions of accounting

Maintaining systematic records Business transactions must be properly recorded, and it should be classified under proper accounts and summarized into financial declarations.
Protecting and correctly controlling the business properties. This plays an important role in protecting and preventing your organization’s resources from fraudulent activities.
Ascertainment of profit or loss. Every business requires to make financial reports to determine the consequences of its financial operations
Facilitating decision making In the process of facilitating decision-making, the ratio, the emotions, and your role as a facilitator must be considered.

PhD in Accounting

  • Advanced Financial Reporting
  • Mathematical modelling
  • Econometrics
  • Decision models
  • Statistical analysis
  • Empirical research
  • Capital market research
  • Behavioural Accounting research
  • Research methodologies
  • Need of accounting software
  • Latest developments in accounting software
  • Historical prospects of accounts
  • Debt management
  • Role of forensic accountants
  • Ways to escape from financial fraud
  • Collusion in auditing
  • Offshore accounting
  • Modern technology in accounting
  • Best accounting practices for online business