Research Methodology MCQ with Answer

Freshers and experienced candidates should prepare the following questions for their research methodology interview:

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Research Methodology Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) & Answers for PhD Entrance Exam/Test. These objective-type questions on research methodology are very important. (Research Methodology MCQ Questions & Answers PDF Download) (UPDATED)

Define Research Methodology

PhD Research Methodology is the method used for identifying, selecting, processing, and analyzing information for a PhD research topic. It involves collecting data to give trusted results relevant to the study subject. the methodology part of the thesis is included after the introduction part and it permits readers to assess the validity and reliability of the study. Research Methodology is a curious part of academic research and is a collective term for the standard processes conducted in the study. Research Methodology is defined as the systematic framework to solve the research problem and explains the research process. It is the research methods or standard techniques to conduct the research siding with the aim and objective of the research which is used for the identification, selection, processing, analysing and execution of the idea about the research topic. It includes research design, data collection methods in research and data analysis. In a research paper, the methodology part will let the reader seriously evaluate and understand more about the research.Different methodologies are used in various types of research such as experiments, surveys, questionnaires, case studies, interviews, trials, observations and more. Based on these methods methodology is classified as a method of data collection, experimental technique, simulation technique and derived methods. You can download the Research Methodology Question Bank With Answer PDF. There are important questions about research methodology with answers. From HIGS you can get a perfectly written research methodology section for your research paper and we also guide and assist you in writing a research methodology. We can also help you by providing a research methodology question paper for phd coursework,report writing in research methodology, research methodology mcq for phd, research methodology short questions and answers pdf and research methodology mcq for phd entrance. For PhD aspirants, we provide research methodology questions for phd entrance pdf, a research methodology question paper with answers, and complete support for your research approach. We can clarify your doubts about the research question like how to approach a research study, define the research problem and how to find a research problem, methodology test, data collection in research methodology, mcq research methodology and so on. At HIGS we also assist in writing research methodology papers for phd, research report writing, and more.

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Do You Know?

1. What Is Research MCQ?

Research MCQs are a specific type of assessment tool used to evaluate knowledge and understanding of research concepts, methodologies, and practices. They consist of questions with multiple answer choices, typically including one correct answer. These questions are widely used in educational settings, particularly in exams and assessments, to test a wide range of topics efficiently.


2. What Do You Mean By Unit Of Analysis MCQ?

The unit of analysis is the people or things whose qualities will be measured. The unit of analysis is an essential part of a research project.

3. What Are The Core Elements Of A Research Process MCQ?

A. Problem formulation

B. Hypothesis making

C. Research design

D. Data analysis

4. How To Judge The Depth Of Any Research MCQ?

The depth of research can be judged by the extent to which the objectives are met. If the objectives are ambitious and well-defined, then the research is likely to be deep. If the objectives are vague or not well-defined, then the research is likely to be shallow.

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For targeted preparation, HIGS also offer MCQ for research methodology, important questions for research methodology which covers key concepts and methodologies essential for academic research. Our research methodology mcq questions and answers pdf is specifically designed to help candidates succeed in their entrance exams by providing a focused set of multiple-choice questions that reflect the rigour and depth required at the PhD level. Our research methodology questions cover a wide range of topics, ensuring a thorough understanding of all aspects of research methodology. Download our free MCQ on research methodology with answers PDF, which is an invaluable resource for students who prefer easily accessible, portable study materials. We also provide a research methodology MCQ PDF in Hindi. At HIGS, we provide MCQs on research methodology pdf, and research methodology mcq for phd entrance pdf which is designed to test and reinforce knowledge across various topics in research methodology. Our research methodology for PhD entrance resources is tailored to meet the specific needs of PhD candidates, ensuring comprehensive coverage of all relevant topics. We have given a list of solved mcq on research methodology pdf free download with answers and research methodology mcq with answers for phd entrance pdf.Here we have provided more than 100 questions (and answers) about research methods pdf below.

TOP 100 QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

1. _______ is referred to as "the father of research on teaching"?
  • a) N. L. Gage
  • b) David Berliner
  • c) Egon Brunswik
  • d) Donald T. Campbell
  • Answer: a. N. L. Gage
2. The main purpose of research in education is to _________
  • a) Increase social status of an individual
  • b) Increase job prospects of an individual
  • c) Help in the personal growth of an individual
  • d) Help the candidate become an eminent educationist
  • Answer: d. Help the candidate become an eminent educationist
3. _______ refers to inferring about the whole population based on the observations made on a small part
  • a) Pseudo-inference
  • b) Objective inference
  • c) Inductive inference
  • d) Deductive inference
  • Answer: c. Inductive inference
4. Sampling is advantageous as it ________
  • a) Saves time
  • b) Helps in capital-saving
  • c) Both (a) and (b)
  • d) Increases accuracy
  • Answer: c. Both (a) and (b)
5. Random sampling is helpful as it is __________
  • a) Reasonably accurate
  • b) Free from personal biases
  • c) An economical method of data collection
  • d) All the above
  • Answer: d. All the above
6. Tippit table refers to ____________
  • a) Table of random digits
  • b) Table used in sampling methods
  • c) Table used in statistical investigations
  • d) All the above
  • Answer: d. All the above
7 . Type-I Error occurs if ___________________
  • a) The null hypothesis is rejected even though it is true
  • b) The null hypothesis is accepted even though it is false
  • c) Both the null hypothesis as well as alternative hypothesis are rejected
  • d) None of the above
  • Answer: a. the null hypothesis is rejected even though it is true
8. _________ is a preferred sampling method for the population with finite size
  • a) Systematic sampling
  • b) Purposive sampling
  • c) Cluster sampling
  • d) Area sampling
  • Answer: a. Systematic sampling
9. Research and Development become the index of development of country. Which of the following reasons are true with regards to this statement?
  • a) Because R&D targets the human development
  • b) Because R&D can improve the standard of living of the people in a country
  • c) Because R&D reflect the true economic and social conditions prevailing in a country
  • d) All the above
  • Answer: d. All the above
10. Which of the following is not an essential element of report writing?
  • a. Research Methodology
  • b. Reference
  • c. Conclusion
  • d. None of these
  • Answer: d. None of these
11. Testing hypothesis is a ________
  • a. Inferential statistics
  • b. Descriptive statistics
  • c. Data preparation
  • d. Data analysis
  • Answer: a. inferential statistics
12. Is it possible to apply projective techniques for exploratory investigation?
  • a. Yes
  • b. No
  • Answer: a. Yes
13. What is the purpose of doing research?
  • a. To identify problem
  • b. To find the solution
  • c. Both a and b
  • d. None of these
  • Answer: c. Both a and b
14. Which method can be applicable for collecting qualitative data?
  • a. Artifacts (Visual)
  • b. People
  • c. Media products (Textual, Visual and sensory)
  • d. All of these
  • Answer: d. All of these
15. Which of the following is non-probability sampling?
  • a. Snowball
  • b. Random
  • c. Cluster
  • d. Stratified
  • Answer: a. Snowball
16. In group interview there are _______
  • a. One interviewer and one interviewee
  • b. More than one interviewer and one interviewee
  • c. One interviewer and more than one interviewee
  • d. More than One interviewer and more than one interviewee
  • Answer: c. one interviewer and more than one interviewee
17. Which of the following are associated with behavioral observation?
  • a. Non-verbal analysis
  • b. Linguistic analysis
  • c. spatial analysis
  • d. All of these
  • Answer: d. All of these
18. Uniting various qualitative methods with quantitative methods can be called as……..
  • a. Coalesce
  • b. Triangulation
  • c. Bipartite
  • d. Impassive
  • Answer: b. Triangulation
19. Multistage sampling is a ________
  • a. Probability sampling
  • b. Non-Probability sampling
  • Answer: a. Probability sampling
20. Hypothesis is..........
  • a) Conclusion drawn from existing literature
  • b) Interpretation of data
  • c) Relation between variables
  • d) Comparison of assumptions
  • Answer: (B) Interpretation of data
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21. In which of the following research methodologies, manipulation and control of variables and randomization of sample are 2 of the basic necessities..........
  • a) Ex-post facto research
  • b) Descriptive research
  • c) Case study research
  • d) Experimental research
  • Answer: (d) Experimental research
22. Which one of the following is the main feature of qualitative research?..........
  • a) Avoids positivist assumptions and data analysis
  • b) Subscribe to pre-existing categories
  • c) Collects data in numerical form
  • d) Uses the empirical methods of data analysis
  • Answer: (a) Avoids positivist assumptions and data analysis
23.Which of the following methodology is being used in empirical researches? ..........
  • a) Inductive method
  • b) Deductive method
  • c) Initiative method
  • d) Scientific method
  • Answer: (d) Scientific method
24. Which technique is generally followed when a population is finite? .......
  • a) Purpose sampling technique
  • b) Area sampling technique
  • c) Systematic sampling technique
  • d) None of the above
  • Answer: (c) Systematic sampling technique
25. In which of the following, there is a greater flexibility in both the methodologies and process of research? .........
  • a) Ethnography and phenomenology
  • b) Descriptive survey and impact studies
  • c) Experimental and observation based studies
  • d) Ex-post facto and historical studies
  • Answer: (a) Ethnography and phenomenology
26. Which of the following sequences correctly represents the steps of research using a quantitative paradigm? ........
  • a) Hypothesis framing, hypothesis testing, conclusion, and reporting
  • b) Establishing a research problem, hypothesis framing, hypothesis testing, generalization and conclusions and implications of result.
  • c) Problem identification, sample selection, developing a research design and field work.
  • d) Defining a problem, survey of related studies, sampling, data collection, and data analysis.
  • Answer: (b) Establishing a research problem, hypothesis framing, hypothesis testing, generalization and conclusions and implications of result.
27. A researcher administers an achievement test to assess and indicate the possible effect of an independent variable in his/her study. The distribution of scores on the test is found to be negatively skewed. On the basis of this, what can be started with regard to the difficulty level of the test? .........
  • a) The test is very easy
  • b) The test is very difficult
  • c) The test is neither easy nor difficult
  • d) The test is easy and needs normalization
  • Answer: (a) The test is very easy
28. The personalized and contextualized references are permissible in which type of reporting of researches? ........
  • a) Experimental research
  • b) Historical research
  • c) Ethnographic research
  • d) Survey based research
  • Answer: (c) Ethnographic research
29. In which of the following methodology of research, hypotheses are usually implied rather than being explicit? ........
  • a) Descriptive survey method
  • b) Historical method
  • c) Experimental method
  • d) Ex-post facto method
  • Answer: (b) Historical method
30. Which is the research methodology predominantly used to study cultural anthropology? ........
  • a) Interview
  • b) Panel discussion
  • c) Participant observation
  • d) Focus group discussion
  • Answer: (c) Participant observation
31. Which among the following is NOT related to qualitative research? ........
  • a) Thematic analysis
  • b) Case study
  • c) Discourse analysis
  • d) Survey method
  • Answer: (d) Survey method
32. Experimental researches are aimed to........
  • a) Establish association between variables
  • b) Describe variables
  • c) Study the application of theory
  • d) Study trend analysis
  • Answer: (a) Establish association between variables
33. Through which of the following methodologies of research “cause and effect” relationship is focused?.........
  • a) Historical method
  • b) Experimental method
  • c) Ex-post facto method
  • d) Case study method
  • Answer: (b) Experimental method
34. Quantitative research is otherwise known as ........
  • a) Ethnographic approach
  • b) Unstructured approach
  • c) Descriptive approach
  • d) Structured approach
  • Answer: (d) Structured approach
35. The main purpose of research in education is to........
  • a) Increase social status of an individual
  • b) Increase job prospects of an individual
  • c) Help in the personal growth of an individual
  • d) Help the candidate become an eminent educationist
  • Answer: (d) Help the candidate become an eminent educationist
36. Sampling is advantageous as it..........
  • a) Saves time
  • b) Helps in capital-saving
  • c) Both (a) and (b)
  • d) Increases accuracy
  • Answer: (c) Both (a) and (b)
37. Random sampling is helpful as it is.........
  • a) Reasonably accurate
  • b) Free from personal biases
  • c) An economical method of data collection
  • d) All of the above
  • Answer: (d) All of the above
38. ------------ refers to inferring about the whole population on the basis of the observations made on a small part
  • a) Pseudo-inference
  • b) Objective inference
  • c) Inductive inference
  • d) Deductive inference
  • Answer: (c) Inductive inference
39. Different people hold ------------- of the same thing
  • a) Same and different
  • b) Same
  • c) Different
  • d) None of the above
  • Answer: (c) Different
40. In “RESEARCH” “R” means..........
  • a) Role
  • b) Retain
  • c) Relly
  • d) Round
  • Answer: (b) Retain
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41. In which research methodology, manipulation of independent variable and control of extraneous variables are neither possible nor desirable? ..........
  • a) Experimental method
  • b) Ex post facto method
  • c) Historical method
  • d) Descriptive survey method
  • Answer: (b) Ex post facto method
42. Which of the following is a non-probability sample?
  • a) Quota sample
  • b) Simple random sample
  • c) Purposive sample
  • d) (a) and (c) both
  • Answer: (d) (a) and (c) both
43. A researcher selects a probability sample of 100 out of the total population. It is .........
  • a) A cluster sample
  • b) A random sample
  • c) A systematic sample
  • d) A stratified sample
  • Answer: (b) A random sample
44. A good hypothesis must be .........
  • a) Formulated in such a way that it can be tested by the data
  • b) Precise, specific, and consistent with most known facts
  • c) Of limited scope and must not have global significance
  • d) All of the above
  • Answer: (d) All of the above
45. Field study is related to .........
  • a) Real life situations
  • b) Laboratory situations
  • c) Experimental situations
  • d) None of the above
  • Answer: (a) Real life situations
46. In the word “RESEARCH” “A” means..........
  • a) Articulate
  • b) Artist
  • c) Article
  • d) None of the above
  • Answer: (a) Articulate
47. Research is based upon ........
  • a) Rating scale
  • b) Experiments
  • c) General principles
  • d) Scientific methods
  • Answer: (d) Scientific methods
48. The main condition which must be followed by research is ..........
  • a) Honest exploration
  • b) Knowledge of facts and principles
  • c) Standardized findings and conclusions
  • d) All of the above
  • Answer: (d) All of the above
49. Researches are generally treated as “identity symbols” of a nation because, ........
  • a) Researches reflect the progress of a nation
  • b) Researches focus on human development
  • c) Researches help in acquiring international prestige
  • d) All of the above
  • Answer: (d) All of the above
50. Validity of a research can be improved by .........
  • a) Taking the true representative sample of the population
  • b) Eliminating extraneous factors
  • c) Both of the above measures
  • d) None of the above
  • Answer: (c) Both of the above measures
51.“One of the methods of logical reasoning process” is called
  • a) Induction
  • b) Deduction
  • c) Research
  • d) Experiment
  • Answer: d) Experiment
52.An essential Criterion of Scientific study is called
  • a) Belief
  • b) Value
  • c) Objectivity
  • d) Subjective
  • Answer: c) Objectivity
53.“Reasoning from general to particular “is called
  • a) Induction
  • b) deduction
  • c) Observation
  • d) experience
  • Answer: b) deduction
54.“Deduction and induction are a part of the system of reasoning” – stated by
  • a) Caroline
  • b) P.V.Young
  • c) Dewey John
  • d) Emory
  • Answer: b) P.V.Young
55. …… is “systematically conceptual structure of interrelated elements in some schematic form”
  • a) Concept
  • b) Variable
  • c) Model
  • d) Facts
  • Answer: c) Model
56.The method by which a sample is chosen
  • a) Unit
  • b) design
  • c) Random
  • d) Census
  • Answer: b) design
57. Research conducted to find the solution for an immediate problem is ………….
  • a) Fundamental Research
  • b) Analytical Research
  • c) Survey
  • d) Action Research
  • Answer: d) Action Research
58. Fundamental Research is otherwise called
  • a) Action Research
  • b) Survey
  • c) Pilot study
  • d) Pure Research
  • Answer: d) Pure Research
59. Research which follows a case study method is called
  • a) Clinical or diagnostic
  • b) Causal
  • c) Analytical
  • d) Qualitative
  • Answer: a) Clinical or diagnostic
60. Research through experiment and observation is called
  • a) Clinical Research
  • b) Experimental Research
  • c) Laboratory Research
  • d) Empirical Research
  • Answer: d) Empirical Research
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61. …………is a way to systematically solve the research problem
  • a) Technique
  • b) Operations
  • c) Research methodology
  • d) Research Process
  • Answer: c) Research methodology
62. Good Research is always ……………
  • a) Slow
  • b) Fast
  • c) Narrow
  • d) Systematic
  • Answer: d) Systematic
63.The research method is a part of …………..
  • a) Problem
  • b) Experiment
  • c) Research Techniques
  • d) Research methodology
  • Answer: d) Research methodology
64. Identifying causes of a problem and possible solutions to a problem is
  • a) Field Study
  • b) diagnostic study
  • c) Action study
  • d) Pilot study
  • Answer: b) diagnostic study
65. …………… is a motivation for research in students
  • a) Research degree
  • b) Research Academy
  • c) Research Labs
  • d) Research Problems
  • Answer: a) Research degree
66. Which of the following is an example of primary data?
  • a) Book
  • b) Journal
  • c) News Paper
  • d) Census Report
  • Answer: c) News Paper
67. A question which requires a solution is ………….
  • a) Observation
  • b) Problem
  • c) Data
  • d) Experiment
  • Answer: b) Problem
68. Converting a question into a Researchable problem is called …………
  • a) Solution
  • b) Examination
  • c) Problem formulation
  • d) Problem-Solving
  • Answer: d) Problem-Solving
69. The first step in formulating a problem is
  • a) a Statement of the problem
  • b) Gathering of Data
  • c) Measurement
  • d) Survey
  • Answer: a) a Statement of the problem
70. A Hypothesis which develops while planning the research is
  • a) a Null Hypothesis
  • b) a Working Hypothesis
  • c) a Relational Hypothesis
  • d) a Descriptive Hypothesis
  • Answer: a) Null Hypothesis
71. An image, perception, or concept that is capable of measurement is called__________
  • a) Scale.
  • b) Hypothesis.
  • c) Type.
  • d) Variable
  • Answer: d) Variable
72. What are the conditions in which Type-I error occurs?
  • a) The null hypothesis get accepted even if it is false
  • b) The null hypothesisgets rejected even if it is true
  • c) Both the null hypotheses as well as alternative hypotheses are rejected
  • d) None of the above
  • Answer: b)The null hypothesisgets rejected even if it is true
73. In order to pursue the research, which of the following is priory required?
  • a) Developing a research design
  • b) Formulating a research question
  • c) Deciding on the data analysis procedure
  • d) Formulating a research hypothesis
  • Answer: b)Formulating a research question
74. How to judge the depth of any research?
  • a) By research title
  • b) By research duration
  • c) By research objectives
  • d) By total expenditure on research
  • Answer: c)By research objectives
75. Which of the following is not the method of Research?
  • a) Survey
  • b) Historical
  • c) Observation
  • d) Observation
  • Answer: c)Observation
76. Research is
  • a) Searching again and again
  • b) Finding solution to any problem
  • c) Working in a scientific way to search for truth of any problem
  • d) None of the above
  • Answer: c)Working in a scientific way to search for the truth of any problem
77. In the process of conducting research ‘Formulation of Hypothesis” is followed by
  • a) Statement of Objectives
  • b) Analysis of Data
  • c) Selection of Research Tools
  • d) Collection of Data
  • Answer: c)Selection of Research Tools
78.……………… is concerned with discovering and testing certain variables with respect to their association or disassociation
  • a) Exploratory
  • b) Descriptive
  • c) Diagnostic
  • d) Descriptive and diagnostic
  • Answer: c)Diagnostic
79.The main objective of ……studies to acquire knowledge
  • a) Exploratory
  • b) Descriptive
  • c) Diagnostic
  • d) Descriptive and Diagnostic
  • Answer: B)Descriptive
80. One of the terms given below is defined as a bundle of meanings or characteristics associated with certain events, objects, conditions, situations, and the like
  • a) Construct
  • b) Definition
  • c) Concept
  • d) Variable
  • Answer: c)Concept
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81. Concepts are ……………. of Research
  • a) Guide
  • b) Tools
  • c) Methods
  • d) Variables
  • Answer: b)Tools
82. Concept is of two types
  • a) Abstract and Coherent
  • b) Concrete and Coherent
  • c) Abstract and concrete
  • d) None of the above
  • Answer: c)Abstract and concrete
83. Why do you need to review the existing literature?
  • a) To make sure you have a long list of references
  • b) Because without it, you could never reach the required word-count
  • c) To find out what is already known about your area of interest
  • d) To help in your general studying
  • Answer: c)To find out what is already known about your area of interest
84. What do you mean by Unit of Analysis?
  • a) Main parameter
  • b) Variables
  • c) Sample
  • d) Constructs
  • Answer: a)Main parameter
85. A statement of the quantitative research question should:
  • a) Extend the statement of purpose by specifying exactly the question (s the researcher will address
  • b) Help the research in selecting appropriate participants, research methods, measures, and materials
  • c) Specify the variables of interest
  • d) All the above
  • Answer: d)All the above
86. "Sampling Cases" can be defined as
  • (a) Sampling using a sampling frame
  • (b) Identifying people who are suitable for research
  • (c) Literally the researcher's brief case
  • (d) A sampling of people, newspapers, television programs etc.
  • Answer: (d) A sampling of people, newspapers, television programs etc.
87.Survey is a ……………. Study
  • a) Descriptive
  • b) Fact finding
  • c) Analytical
  • d) Systematic
  • Answer: b)Fact finding
88.In a survey there is an enumerator and a ………………….
  • a)Guide
  • b)Respondent
  • c)Supervisor
  • d)Messenger
  • Answer: b)Respondent
89. The first purpose of a survey is to …………
  • a)Description
  • b)Evaluation
  • c)Pration
  • d)Provide Information
  • Answer: d)Provide Information
90. Questions in which only two alternatives are possible is called
  • a)Multiple-choice questions
  • b)Dichotomous questions
  • c)Open-ended questions
  • d)Structured questions
  • Answer: b)Dichotomous questions
91. What are the core elements of a Research Process?
  • a)Introduction; Data Collection; Data Analysis; Conclusions and Recommendations
  • b)Executive Summary; Literature Review; Data Gathered; Conclusions; Bibliography
  • c)Research Plan; Research Data; Analysis; References
  • d)Introduction; Literature Review; Research Methodology; Results; Discussions and Conclusions
  • Answer: d)Introduction; Literature Review; Research Methodology; Results; Discussions and Conclusions
92. Identifying the causes of a problem and possible solutions to a problem is
  • a)Field Study
  • b)Diagnosis tic study
  • c)Action study
  • d)Pilot study
  • Answer: b)Diagnosis tic study
93. Second step in problem formulation is
  • a)Statement of the problem
  • b)Understanding the nature of the problem
  • c)Survey
  • d)Discussions
  • Answer: b)Understanding the nature of the problem
94. Questionnaire is filled by ……………….
  • a)Respondent
  • b)Everybody
  • c)Enumerator
  • d)None of the above
  • Answer: b)Respondent
95. The main problem withthe questionnaire is
  • a)Accessible to Diverse Respondents
  • b)Greater Anonymity
  • c)Shows an inability of the respondent to provide information
  • d)None of these
  • Answer: c)Shows an inability of the respondent to provide information
96. What does the term 'longitudinal design' mean?
  • a) A study completed far away from where the researcher lives.
  • b) A study that is very long to read.
  • c) A study with two contrasting cases.
  • d) A study completed over a distinct period of time to map changes in social phenomena.
  • Answer: d) A study completed over a distinct period of time to map changes in social phenomena.
97. Which of the following is true regarding research objectives?
  • a) Research objectives, when achieved, will provide sufficient earnings to obtain a reasonable return on investment.
  • b) Research objectives, when obtained, will ensure the viability of the marketing research department.
  • c) Research objectives, when achieved, provide the information necessary to solve the problem.
  • d) Research objectives are seldom achieved but should be stated as goals to be sought.
  • Answer: c) Research objectives, when achieved, provide the information necessary to solve the problem.
98. Wrong questionnaire is an example of ………
  • a)Primary data collection problem
  • b)Secondary collection problem
  • c)A and B both
  • d)None of the above
  • Answer: a)Primary data collection problem
99.The existing company information is an example of which data?
  • a)Primary
  • b)Secondary
  • c)Both a and b
  • d)None of the above
  • Answer: b)Secondary
100. Your colleague is confused about using the marketing research process, as he knows that something is wrong but is not sure of the specific causes to investigate. He seems to be having problems with ________, which is often the hardest step to take.
  • a)Developing the research plan
  • b)Determining a research approach
  • c)Defining the problem and research objectives
  • d)Selecting a research agency
  • Answer: c)Defining the problem and research objectives
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